baumzaehlen - Primeval Forests & Their Trees

©2017 copyright christoph hase

Estivant Pines Nature Sanctuary, Michigan, USA

This small (2 km 2 ) reserve near Lake Superior is one of the few unlogged Opens internal link in current window Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) groves in Michigan. In Upper Michigan, P. strobus is considered a mid-successional species, and its long term maintenance in mesic forests seems to be dependent on intense fires after wind disturbance has provided fuel dry enough to support fire 1 . Annual precipitation is approx. 800 mm and average annual temperature approx. 4°C 2 .


1 Frelich, L. E. & Reich, P. B. (1996): Old Growth in the Great Lakes Region. In Davis, M. B. (ed.): Eastern Old-Growth Forests, Prospects for Rediscovery and Recovery . Island Press.

2 Barnes, B. V. & Wagner, W. H. Jr. (2004): Michigan Trees. The University of Michigan Press.

Official site:

Pinus strobus (eastern white pine), with foliage of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) and Acer saccharum (sugar maple) on the left. Also Acer rubrum (red maple) seedling, bottom left.
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine). Also Ostrya virginiana (American hophornbeam), small tree, left.